Adoption FAQs and Resources

Tennessee adoption frequently asked questions.
Learn MoreNeed Help? Contact Dawn

Your Adoption Questions Answered

What are Dawn’s qualifications as an adoption attorney?
  • Legal Expertise and Scholarship
  • Stellar Professional Reputation
  • Experience and Relationships
  • Litigation AND Mediation Skills
  • Energy and Determination
  • Child Centered Approach
  • Knowledge of Fields Related to Child Welfare
  • Passion for Creating Strong and Sustainable Families
  • Communication Skills 
  • Clear and Fair Billing Practices
  • Integrity

Learn more about Dawn and her legal expertise on TN adoptions.

Did Dawn really write the book on adoption law in Tennessee or is that just a figure of speech?

Yes, Dawn has written the law book, Coppock on Tennessee Adoption Law.  The 8th edition was released in 2024.  Visit to purchase. 

What is my adoption going to cost?

Despite her statewide leadership in adoption law, Dawn keeps her fees for most cases competitive with other competent lawyers.  The fee range for adoption cases is from about $600-$60,000.  To narrow the expected range a bit, view the range of fees for the most common cases on the Adoption Legal Fees page.

Are there sources of funds available to pay adoption legal fees that might benefit me?

There is a federal income tax credit available to most clients in the amount of their adoption expenses, including legal fees.

The state pays Dawn’s fees to finalize the adoptions of most state foster children.  And there are also grants and loans for adoption.  

Who can adopt in Tennessee?
  • U.S. citizens & non-citizens may adopt.
  • Single people and married people may adopt.
  • Straight and gay people may adopt.
  • People 18 years of age and older may adopt.
  • Adoption petitioners must have physical custody at the time they file the petition for adoption.
  • Adoption petitioners must have an approved home study except,
    • in adult adoption 
    •  intercountry readoption, and
    • adoptions by step parents and relatives if the court waives the home study requirement at the petitioners’ request.  
  • Petitioners must live or maintain a regular place of abode in Tennessee at the time of filing the adoption petition unless:
    • Petitioners have received an order of guardianship from a Tennessee court.
      • A Petitioner is in the military and stationed outside of Tennessee but,
        • maintained a regular abode in Tennessee prior to entry in the military, or
        • identified Tennessee as their state of legal residence.

A full overview of Tennessee adoption law is available here.

Who may not adopt?
  • One member of a married couple cannot adopt without the other spouse adopting as well.
  • Two unmarried people cannot adopt the same child. (Example: Adult raised by a foster mother would like for the foster mother and a biological uncle to be her legal parents. Unless the foster mother and uncle are married to one another, this is not permitted.)
  • Sometimes a single parent, usually a mother, will want one of her relatives to adopt the child, terminating the birth father’s rights, but without terminating her own rights. While this may sometimes be in the best interest of the child, the requirement that both parents’ rights be terminated before adoption only except in step parent adoptions, and therefore the desired adoption is not permitted.
  • A non-related person without a home study.
  • Dead people (Sometimes a grandmother, for example, will adopt and want her deceased husband included in the action. This is not allowed.)

A full overview of Tennessee adoption law is available here.

Can single people adopt in Tennessee?

Yes, a single person can adopt in Tennessee.

A full overview of Tennessee adoption law is available here. 

Can gay and lesbian people adopt in Tennessee?

Yes, gay and lesbian people can adopt in Tennesee.

A full overview of Tennessee adoption law is available here.

What is a home study?

A home study is an investigation by a licensed child-placing agency of the prospective adoptive parents and their home to determine the fitness of prospective adoptive parents.

A full overview of Tennessee adoption law is available here.

Do I have to have a home study to adopt in Tennessee?

 A non-related prospective adoptive parent must obtain an approved home study in order to complete the adoption process.

Learn more about Home Studies here.

Who is considered to be a relative of the child in Tennessee?

In Tennessee, a relative of a child is defined as grandparents or any degree of great-grandparents, aunts or uncles, or any degree of great-aunts or great-uncles, or step-parent, or cousins of the first degree, or first cousins once removed, or any siblings of the whole or half degree or any spouse of the above-listed relatives.

What is a home study like?

At its most fundamental level, a home study is an investigation to be sure that your home is safe for a child. The result is a report of probably 6-10 pages about you, your home, your household members and your life. 

Agencies’ practices vary a bit. Some include books to read and classes to take, but the investigation proportion of a typical home study includes: 

  • Verification of age, marital status and employment,
  • Recent medical documentation reflecting that the prospective adoptive parents have a normal life expectancy and have no diseases that could be transmitted to the child; 
  • A financial investigation in order to determine whether the prospective adoptive parents are responsible in financial matters and have adequate resources to provide for an additional family member; 
  • A criminal records check; 
  • A references check; 
  • A completion of forms regarding family history and lifestyle; 
  • Preparation of a short autobiography by each prospective parent; 
  • Home visits to confirm that the home is safe, free from health risks, and has sufficient space for an additional family member; the home inspection may include confirmation that pets receive the required shots, guns and poisons are securely stored, and that the home has smoke detectors and fire extinguishers.
  • Interviews with the prospective parent(s) to determine their fitness to act as parents, and to assess general stability of the marital relationship, if married, general psychological health, and to confirm the absence of substance abuse or physical abuse in the home.

The health and safety of all household members is reviewed so everyone has to participate.  

In the best circumstances, a home study is also an educational process preparing the adoptive parents for the process of adoption and the stresses inherent in that process, as well as preparing them for parenting generally. Home study workers usually know a great deal about fostering successful adoptive families. They can be a good source of information.  Particularly in a traditional agency adoption, the individual conducting the home study may also provide emotional support for the adoptive parents throughout the adoption process.

    Do I have to live in Tennessee to adopt in Tennessee?

    Yes, unless you or your adoption agency received guardianship of a child from a Tennessee Court or are in the military and Tennessee is your regular place of abode or legal residence.

    See where are adoptions filed under our TN Adoption Law Summary.

      Whose parental rights must be terminated before an adoption and whose do not need to be terminated?
      •  Legal parents (Mother and her husband (if married within 300 days of the child’s birth))
      • The child’s guardians appointed under the adoption code and after termination of parental rights
      • A man who has been declared to be the father of the child by the adoption court subsequent to the filing of the petition to adopt but before the adoption is finalized.
      • Putative biological father. Whether a man is a putative father requires the advice of an attorney familiar with Tennessee adoption law and that  will ultimately be made by a judge.

      You do not need to terminate the parental rights of:

      • A man whose petition for paternity has been denied.
      • A person who is dead.
      • A sperm donor, in certain limited situations.
      • A man who is on the birth certificate because the mother falsely stated that they were married, but who a court has found is neither the legal or biological father of the child.
      • An unknown birth father and certain inactive biological, but not legal or putative, fathers.  This determination can only be made by an attorney and ultimately by a judge.

      Learn more about TN adoption law.

        How are parental rights terminated voluntarily?
          • A man who is not on the child’s birth certificate nor married to the mother may sign a Waiver of Interest. This document is set out in the Tennessee Code and may be signed pre-birth and is immediately irrevocable. It is a valid termination of parental rights as long as an adoption takes place. If signed pre-birth, the birth father must see a statement signed by the mother naming him as the child’s father before he signs the Waiver. 
          • A legal father who is not the biological father may sign a Denial of Paternity.  This document is set out in the Tennessee Code and may be signed pre-birth and is immediately irrevocable.  This document along with credible proof that he is not the father, such as a sworn statement of the mother or DNA testing, can avoid the need for a consent or termination of parental rights from the legal parent. 
          • A birth mother, legal father or biological father may sign a particular consent form called a “surrender” before a judge or chancellor. This form is also set out in the Tennessee Code. The surrender has a 3 day revocation period. After the revocation period, the surrender is irrevocable without a showing of fraud or duress. A surrender must be accepted by an agency or prospective adoption parents. To accept a surrender, the adoptive parents must have an approved home study and physical custody of the child. The surrender may take place in any county before any chancellor, circuit judge, or  juvenile judge. Other government officials may preside over a surrender if the surrendering birth parent is in another state, another country or in prison. 
          • A birth parent in an adoption by a relative or step parent may sign the petition for adoption as a Co-Petitioner to provide their consent. Signing the adoption petition is the most common method of consent used in step parent and relative cases. The petition must be signed before a notary.There are several methods for voluntary termination of parental rights. For the consent to be effective the correct method for the circumstances must be used. Consult an experienced attorney to select and prepare the correct document. Below is a simple summary of a complex area of law. It does not include all the information and requirements.  Sometimes an ineffective attempt at securing a consent can be counter productive to a case.

          Non-lawyers, please do not find adoption consent documents, print them and present them to parents for signature. This rarely results in a consent that is usable for an adoption. The conditions for using each type of consent are very specific and strict. 

        Learn more about TN adoption law.

          How are parental rights terminated involuntarily?

          An involuntary termination of parental rights begins with a lawsuit filed by the prospective adoptive parents, an agency, DCS or the Guardian ad Litem, who is then called “the petitioner.”  This is a lawsuit against the child’s birth parent(s) whose rights have not otherwise been terminated.  The petitioner must prove at least one particular ground to terminate a parent’s rights and that termination of parental rights is in the child’s best interest for the court to grant termination of parental rights.

          The birth parent(s) must be served with the petition for termination of parental rights. Ideally, this should occur by personal service. Personal service occurs when a properly issued summons and a copy of the petition to terminate parental rights is personally served on the parent by a process server or other qualified person. If personal service is not possible, the court may grant permission for service by publication. 

          If, within 30 days after completion of service, the birth parent does not answer the petition, the petitioner can ask to win by default or because the other side did not answer. The request for default is set on the court’s docket, and all parties are notified of the hearing date.  If the birth parent does not appear and defend,  the petitioner must still offer the court proof of grounds and best interest, and if this is done, the default judgment is usually granted.

          If the birth parent answers within 30 days of service, the matter is generally set for trial and each side will have an opportunity to be heard before the judge decides whether grounds exist and if so, whether termination of parental rights is in the child’s best interest. 

          A contested termination of parental rights can be complex and prolonged litigation, despite efforts in the law to speed up these cases. 

          Learn more about TN adoption law.

            What expenses can be paid to a pregnant woman who wants to place her child for adoption?

            The rules for paying birth parent expenses are detailed and strict. Never pay or receive money related to an adoption without clearing it with an attorney first. When a pregnant woman makes a plan to place her child for adoption, prospective adoptive parents may pay some of her living expenses.  The time period and types of expense payments allowed are strictly limited. To pay something other than the listed items is a Class C felony, punishable by 3-15 years in prison and a fine not to exceed $15,000.00. The information here is provided for general information only and should not serve as a basis for making any payments in the context of an adoption. 

            For the duration of her pregnancy and for 90 days after after birth, a birth mother may receive payment for the following reasonable and actual expenses: housing, utilities, transportation, maternity clothes and food. 

            If the birth mother wants counseling, the prospective adoptive parents are required to pay for that counseling for up to 24 month. The prospective adoptive parents are also required to pay for the birth mother to have an attorney, if she chooses to have one.  The prospective adoptive parents also customarily pay for medical expenses not covered by insurance for the mother and baby. 

            Licensed adoption agencies may pay expenses with less restrictions but traditionally, they do not.

            Payment to an intermediary who is not a licensed child-placing agency for matching the birth mother with the adoptive parents (facilitator) is illegal in Tennessee. 

            Learn more about TN adoption law.

              Can I get a federal adoption tax credit for my adoption expenses?

              Unless you are pretty wealthy, yes. The federal government offers a valuable tax credit for many types of adoptions. Refer to the IRS publication for specifics. Adoption Tax Credit Information

              Generally, the following types of adoptions are eligible for a federal tax credit:

              • Special Needs Adoptions- this type of adoption may permit a tax credit in excess of money spent pursuing the adoption 
              • State Agency Adoptions (in Tennessee this is the Department of Children’s Services)- this type of adoption may permit a tax credit in excess of money spent pursuing the adoption 
              • Private or Independent Adoptions
              • Agency Adoptions
              • Relative Adoptions (except step parent adoptions)
              • Intercountry Adoptions (only eligible if finalized)
              • Expenses paid pursuing all the above types of adoption, except intercountry, could be credited even if the adoption is never finalized.

              The following types of adoptions are NOT normally eligible for the federal adoption tax credit:

              • Adoptions in connection with surrogacy arrangements
              • Step parent adoptions
              • Adult adoptions

              Learn more about TN adoption law.

                Are open adoption or post adoption contact agreements legally enforceable in Tennessee?

                Yes. A written agreement regarding post adoption contact is called a “PACA” in Tennessee, or post adoption contact agreement. A PACA can be a moral agreement or legally enforceable in court. So, when birth and prospective adoptive parents agree that they all want an “open adoption,” there is still a great deal left to decide.

                  How do parties to the adoption access adoption records after the legal case is done?

                  Look in the right place

                  The state law where the adoption or termination of parental rights took place controls the access to the resulting records. If any part of your adoption occurred in Tennessee, the Tennessee Department of Children’s Services and the  Court involved should have a record. If your adoption occurred in another state or country, the records are in that location and the laws of that state or country will control your access to the records. If you were born in Tennessee but adopted elsewhere, the Tennessee Department of Vital records should have your original and your amended birth certificate. 

                  Tennessee law on access to records

                  Tennessee’s adoption records are some of the most accessible adoption records in the country. The rules were drawn in an effort to balance the various competing interests and are thus, a little complex. The law attempts to give adopted adults most of the information in the adoption record, while protecting all members of the “Triad” (adoption-talk for the birth parents, adoptive parents and the adopted person), from unwanted contact with the others. The first premise is that any person, including an adopted person, has a right to know about their history and heritage. The second premise is that all members of the adoption triad should be permitted to decide if they want to be contacted by one another, and that violation of the expressed desire not to be contacted should carry criminal and civil penalties. You will find the actual code sections that govern access to adoption records at T.C.A. §36-1-125 to 36-1-141. The Tennessee Code is available free online and assistance is usually available from your local library. 

                  Most Tennessee records can be accessed without an attorney through an administrative process conducted by the Tennessee Department of Children’s Services Post Adoption Unit

                  Tennessee Department of Children’s Services – Post Adoption Unit 


                  More information for adopted people is available here.

                    I understand that there is a Foster Parents’ Bill of Rights, where do I find that?
                    What is adoption assistance and how does it work?

                    When you adopt a special needs child, you are eligible for adoption assistance, also known as adoption subsidy, benefits which often include health insurance and cash payments that are to be negotiated between you and the Department of Children’s Services.  The subsidy negotiations should be completed and an agreement should be signed prior to the finalization of your adoption.

                    Subsidies are available to cover continued treatment of any medical, psychological or dental problem that the child had at the time the child was placed for adoption.  Continued TennCare coverage can be provided and sometimes the State can cover needs not covered by TennCare.

                    Learn more about adoption assistance.

                    Can I select my own attorney when I adopt a foster child from the state?

                    Yes, you get to pick and should select the lawyer to represent you in adopting a foster child. The lawyer should be directed by you and report to you and what you talk to them about should be entirely confidential. You can also change lawyers if you begin with one and you aren’t happy.

                    If your foster child is free or almost free for adoption, and you are ready for an attorney to finalize the adoption, all you need to do is contact Dawn’s office and tell them you are ready to begin.

                    Learn more about selecting an attorney here.

                    Will the state pay for my attorney when I adopt a foster child?

                    Almost always. If your foster child is a special needs child as defined by DCS, and most foster children are, then the Department will pay for your lawyer to finalize the adoption, generally a flat rate fee of $1000 per child plus court costs and the birth certificate fee.

                    Learn more about selecting an attorney here.

                    Any advice for foster parents when advocating for their foster children?

                    Because the foster parents often want what they believe is best for the child, a conflict between “the system” and the foster parents can backfire, mostly to the detriment of the child. Whether the various professionals “like” you makes far more difference than it should in Tennessee child welfare case management, and people who actively speak up for their foster children can be viewed as trouble by DCS, and even by GALs. It is a tricky line to walk. Certainly, when you advocate, use good manners and offer mostly facts and less emotion.

                    As a first step to engage an inactive GAL who has not met the foster parents or child, I generally advise that the foster parents set a time when the family will be home, and invite the GAL over to meet and visit with the foster parents and the child. Tidy up, smile and have coffee and cookies. Make the GAL want to come back.  Try to create an opportunity for the GAL to get a real sense of who the child is temperamentally, and educate them about any special needs and residual trauma that the child has.

                    Provide the GAL with a written list of the children’s professionals and school, if any, along with contact information. Provide a summary of the child’s progress. If any provider has a progress report, diagnosis or assessment, share that.  If there have been visits with birth parents, provide that schedule with annotations if you think that is helpful. As you look at the case, you will see things the GAL needs to make his or her job easier. Provide those things in writing.

                    Hiring counsel, like raising concerns, can brand foster parents as “trouble.” But sometimes, foster parents are actually less trouble to DCS when an attorney takes the time to listen to their concerns and explain exactly what is going on and why. Sometimes social workers will get pretty chilly when they learn that a foster parent plans to or has spoken with an attorney. However, foster parents can consult with counsel to get advice and to have questions answered without sharing that they have done so with the Department. They can talk with the attorney about whether having the attorney openly advocate on their behalf is a good idea in light of the circumstances of the particular case and their contract with DCS

                    When you hire an attorney to advise you, that fact is confidential unless or until you want to make it known.

                    Two important pointers:

                    • Once the foster parents have had the child in their home for the immediate past 12 months, they have preference to adopt should the child become eligible for adoption, over relatives or other foster placements. This does not mean reunification stops. But it does mean if anyone is going to adopt, the foster parents have preference.
                    • Should DCS offer to give foster parents custody or guardianship, rather than completing the case themselves, the foster parents should not agree without talking to an attorney. This choice can leave the foster parents with large legal tasks undone and no funding to pay a lawyer to do them. Likewise, it leaves the child ineligible for adoption assistance and the health insurance backup that foster children are normally entitled to receive.

                    Learn more about advocating for your foster child here.

                    How is post adoption contact different for foster children?

                    Foster families face special issues and risks in PACAs. 

                    Consider some common circumstances:

                    • The child is in state custody because the parent presented a danger to them. 
                    • DCS or the foster agency may want the birth parents to agree to termination of parental rights without a contested trial because settlement uses less state resources. 
                    • The birth parents, the child and DCS all have lawyers on the case well before any conversation about termination of parental rights.  
                    • The foster parent(s) generally don’t have a lawyer, and can’t get a lawyer at DCS expense, until adoption is the plan for the child.
                    • The birth parent(s) and the foster parent(s), and if the child is 14 or older, the child, are the people who must sign any PACA, and the foster parents are the people who must make it work. 
                    • Under these circumstances, foster parents may be pressured to enter into a PACA that offers too much contact with the birth parents and is not in the child’s best interest. It is reasonable and even advisable for foster parents to want their own lawyer to advise them before they enter into a PACA. For many foster parents, the barrier to obtaining counsel at this point in the process is legal fees. There may be a solution to get at least some private legal advice for no additional cost.

                    Learn about foster parent PACA’s here.

                    What are my choices if I am looking for a child to adopt in Tennessee?
                    • Private/Independent Adoption
                    • International Adoption
                    • Private Agency Adoption
                    • State Agency Adoption

                    There are many opinions on the merits of each way to adopt. But, there is no one type of adoption that is appropriate for everyone.  However, each type of adoption is appropriate for someone.  Here are some things to consider as you assess the type of adoption:

                    • The type of child desired,
                    • Tolerance for financial risk,
                    • Tolerance for medical risk,
                    • Tolerance for legal risk,
                    • Tolerance of emotional risk,
                    • Approach to birth parent contact,
                    • Importance of social and medical history about the child and the birth family,
                    • Amount of time you have to dedicate to pursuing adoption,
                    • Patience level,
                    • Budget,
                    • How much control and responsibility you want over the adoption plan,
                    • and whether your age, religion, family size or other factors limit your choices.

                    Learn more about the TN adoption landscape.

                    Would it be useful for me to sit down and work with Dawn to create a custom approach to adoption for me?

                    Often it is useful. The time, emotion, and sometimes funds you invest in pursuing adoption are significant. If you begin down the wrong path,  ally with a disreputable agency or facilitator, you can lose time and money and you may become discouraged. Taking time to learn about the process and formulate an educated plan at the start can help you use your time and money wisely. Dawn offers a safe and confidential place for you to voice your fears and sensitivities and to get a reality check. Understanding the geography of the adoption landscape will help you create the best path for you before you set out. 

                    For families just beginning the adoption process, Dawn offers a 1½ to 2 hour individual orientation meeting

                    Dawn represents about 10-12 families who adopt privately (or independently) per year, always including several interstate adoptions.  Most of Dawn’s clients find their own “leads” after a little direction at the orientation meeting.

                    Dawn’s goal for an orientation meeting is to help you understand options regarding the different types of adoption, the types of children available, costs, expected waiting time and the risks and benefits of each choice.  When you have selected the best type of adoption for you, Dawn will help you develop some action items.

                    How do I select an adoption agency?

                    If you plan to hire a full service adoption agency to help you prepare to adopt, find you a child and manage your case, you are about to invest a great deal of time, money and hope. Due diligence is appropriate.  

                    The adoption agency you work with must be a licensed adoption agency in the state where the agency is located.  Tennessee has several fine adoption agencies and nearly no real duds. When you venture past the state line, it can be harder to tell if you are working with an ethical and financially stable, licensed agency. Sometimes an agency will go out of business or have their license revoked after families have made initial payments and the money is almost always lost.

                    Begin your due diligence by looking at the agency’s website,  but more importantly,  Google them and look back in the search 6 or 7 pages, go down rabbit holes and look at adoptive parent message boards. Some unethical agencies will hire internet scrub services to conceal negative information. Also Google their principals, directors and attorneys. Sadly, there are a few nefarious folks who get run out of business only to pop up across the street with a different agency name. You don’t want to be one of the last families who sent an agency $10,000 a week before they were shuttered, and 6 months after the internet rumors started to fly.  If you were attracted to this agency due to a particular claim, fast results for example, try to confirm that. Remember, if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.   

                     Agencies are usually licensed by the state child welfare agency, the DCS equivalent in the other state. If your internet search looks good, then check with the agency licensing office in the state where the agency is located to confirm that they are licensed as an adoption agency, not to drive or to fix hair, which must be the licenses referred to on some websites that do not otherwise check out. Sometimes the list of agencies licensed by a state is available online. Ask if complaints are available for review in that state. If they are, of course, look.  If all that checks out, then call anyone you know in the adoption field or in the geographic location of the agency headquarters to ask if they know of the agency. 

                    The only entity a Tennessean can pay to help you match with a birth parent or child is a licensed child-placing agency. Be very careful to confirm that the entity you are hiring has an “adoption agency license” or a “child-placing license.”

                    Learn more about selecting an adoption agency.

                    Can I hire an adoption facilitator?

                    No. Tennessee families can not hire adoption facilitators. An adoption facilitator is someone other than a licensed child-placing agency who charges or accepts money, including “donations,” legal fees, medical fees, advertising fees, etc. in return for finding you an opportunity to adopt. 

                    In Tennessee, placing a child for money is only permissible for a licensed child-placing agency and no one else. 

                    If I am considering adoption for my expected child, what does adoption look like for me?

                    You have a number of choices and opportunities to create the process that you want along with the prospective adoption parents that you select, but some aspects of the process are covered by laws. Dawn has prepared a summary of those laws that impact your rights and choices. Adoption law is state law so it varies from state to state. This “Bill of Rights” is based on Tennessee law only.  A statement of rights or law like this one is useful for general information purposes only and is not as a substitute for legal advice. For answers to your particular legal questions, contact an attorney.

                    Learn more about birth parents’ rights.

                    Where do I buy a copy of Coppock on Tennessee Adoption Law?

                    The 8th edition is expected to ship in March 2024 and will be available for purchase at

                    How do I learn more about seminars for lawyers taught by Dawn Coppock?

                    You can learn more about Dawn’s legal seminars here.

                    Is it true that Dawn answers questions for lawyers on the phone for free?

                    Yes, Free technical assistance is offered to attorneys as a service to the bar.  

                    Free assistance is limited to specific questions that are posed in hypothetical form and without identifying information or facts that could create a conflict should Dawn represent a party in the case later. 

                    A free assistance intake form is provided here. 

                    Dawn also gets a number of calls and emails with “a quick question.”  She would like to be of assistance to everyone. In fact, she has developed a reputation as a “soft touch” and that is probably why Dawn gets so many calls from colleagues. To focus and keep up quality standards for Dawn’s clients, client matters are attended to before colleague assistance inquires. Dawn sets aside time most weeks to address consulting inquiries. Emails receive faster responses than phone calls, assuming the emails are of a reasonable length. Colleague assistance intake forms are provided below.

                    If you are an attorney with a question about adoption law and your question is too involved to answer in a 5-10 minute telephone call, consider hiring Dawn to consult on your case. 

                    I understand there are lots of good forms and articles on this page for Lawyers. Where are they?
                    What’s with the rubber ducks?

                    When Dawn finalizes an adoption, she gives the adopted child (or adult) a rubber duck. For virtual finalizations she mails them. It is a fun celebration of the new beginning and most always gets a smile.

                    Wonder what a rubber duck sounds like?